Types Of Artificial Intelligence
The technology that is completely revolutionized the 21st century is Artificial Intelligence. It is very important to understand different concepts in Artificial Intelligence. This article on will help you understand the different stages and categories of AI.
What Is Artificial Intelligence?
The term Artificial Intelligence was defined by John McCarthy in 1956. According to John McCarthy AI is defined as ‘The science and engineering of making intelligent machines.’
Artificial Intelligence can also be defined as the development of computer systems that are capable of carrying out tasks that need human intelligence, such as decision making, object detection, solving complex problems and so on.
Now let’s come across different stages or the types of learning in Artificial Intelligence.
Stages Of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence is divided in various types, they are mainly two types of main categorization which are based on capabilities and based on functionally of AI.
Below is a figure that shows different types of AI.
AI type-1: Based on Capabilities
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
Also known as weak AI. Narrow AI is able to perform a dedicated task with intelligence and cannot perform beyond its field or limitations. The most common and currently available AI in the world is Artificial Narrow Intelligence.
Siri, Alexa, Self-driving cars, Alpha-Go, Sophia the humanoid are the few examples of Weak AI.
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
Also known as Strong AI. General AI is the stage where machines will possess the ability to think and make decisions just like us humans. They could perform any intellectual task with efficiency like a human.
Present there is no such system exist which could come under general AI. Researchers are working on developing machines with General AI.
Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
Super AI is a level of Intelligence where machines could surpass human intelligence, and can perform any task better than human with cognitive properties.
ASI is presently a imaginary situation as depicted in movies and science fiction books, where machines have taken over the world.
Artificial Intelligence type-2: Based on functionality
1. Reactive Machines
Purely reactive machines are the most basic type of AI. These machines do not store memories or previous experiences for future actions.These operate solely based on the present data and react on it as per possible best action.IBM’s Deep Blue system, Google’s AlphaGo are the examples of reactive machines.
2. Limited Memory
Limited memory machines have a short-lived or a temporary memory that can be used to store past experiences and hence evaluate future actions.Self-driving cars are one of the best examples of Limited Memory systems where they can store recent speed of nearby cars, the distance of other cars, speed limit etc., to navigate the road.
3. Theory of Mind
The Theory Of Mind AI is a more advanced type of Artificial Intelligence. These machines play a major role in psychology. They focus mainly on emotional intelligence so that human believes thoughts can be better comprehended.This type of AI machines is yet not developed, but researchers are working for improvement to develop such AI machines.
Self-awareness AI will be smarter than human mind.These machines are the future of Artificial Intelligence. They are super intelligent, and will have their own consciousness, sentiments, and self-awareness.Self-Awareness AI it is a hypothetical concept and does not exist in reality still.